5.1. General information

Engine cooling system

All models of the cars considered in the present manual are equipped with the engine cooling system working with an excessive pressure with thermostatic management of circulation of working liquid. The water pump is fixed on the block of the engine and provides pumping of cooling liquid through a cooling path of the last.

The scheme of an arrangement of the main components of the cooling system (on the example of diesel models)

1 — the Radiator
2 — a fan Casing
3 — the Broad tank
4 — the Fan
5 — the Thermostat

6 — an oil cooler Tube
7 — the Water pump
8 — the Sensor of level of cooling liquid
9 — the Turbocompressor
10 - Inlet/final oil cooler branch pipes

The stream of liquid washes regions of an arrangement of each of cylinders in the block then goes to a back part of the engine; the cooling channels laid in casting of the block and a head of cylinders provide intensive heat removal from inlet and final ports, areas of installation of candles of an ignition/incandescence and the directing plugs of final valves; on diesel models cooling liquid is used also for withdrawal of excess heat from a turbocompressor.

The scheme of a big contour of circulation of cooling liquid (on the example of diesel models)

Since engine launch the cooling system passes through three modes of functioning: on a pervometapa until temperature of cooling liquid rose above a certain value, it circulates on a small circle which of working contour the radiator is excluded. In process of further warming up of the engine the dish-shaped valve of the voskozapolnenny thermostat which is switched on in the highway of system opens and the radiator is connected to a contour of circulation. Further, on reaching temperature of cooling liquid of the next control value, the viscous coupling of the drive of the fan of the cooling system, forced which the additional air stream considerably increases efficiency of functioning of the heat exchanger of a radiator works.

In addition the design of the viscous coupling provides shutdown of the fan at excess by turns of the engine of some certain value when the adequate heat sink is reached due to increase in intensity of the running air stream.

The cooling system has a tight design and is densely closed by the cover of a radiator capable to maintain a certain excessive pressure that provides increase in a boiling point of cooling liquid and, - respectively, - efficiency of the heat sink through a radiator. At excess by internal pressure in system of some certain value (see Specifications of the Head of the Cooling system, heating, ventilation and air conditioning), the double-thread pressure head and vacuum valve which is built in in a cover opens that leads to an overflowing of excess of cooling liquid on a connecting (overflow) tube in a broad tank, - the air and pairs of the heat carrier which are coming out together with liquid then are removed from a tank at the expense of the organization of ventilation of the last. In process of cooling of system and lowering of pressure in it below atmospheric the forced-out excess of liquid automatically comes back from a tank to a radiator.

On models with automatic transmission the radiator is equipped with the additional tank providing ATF cooling.

Gas station of cooling liquid in system is made through a radiator mouth (see the Head the Current leaving and service). Adjustment of level of liquid can be made through a mouth of a broad tank which at the same time acts also as the receiver accumulating in itself the excess of liquid which is forced out from a radiator.

In view of the listed features of a design, such cooling system received the name closed as in it any functional losses of the heat carrier are excluded.

Systems of heating and ventilation of salon

The system of heating consists of the sleeves of distribution of an air stream located in a forward part of interior of the fan, heat exchanger, and also equipped with output deflectors. Hot cooling liquid passes through the heat exchanger. The principles of management of functioning of systems of heating/ventilation (and conditioning) are in detail stated regarding the Device of ensuring comfort of the Head Governing bodies and methods of operation.

Air conditioning system

See the Section of System of ventilation, heating and air conditioning.